Putnam_2016_A5

Putnam_2016_A5

This question does not demand any advanced group theory knowledge. The FP2 option in Edexcel Further Math (or the now defunct IB Math HL Sets, Relations, and Groups option) is sufficient.

Therefore, all elements in G can be written in the form stated in the question.

Footnote: My solution uses the pigeonhole principle but I am sure one could also use graph theory.

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